Portable electronics, generally known as “vape pens,” are more popular then ever among medical marijuana patients as well as others simply because they provide a convenient, discreet, and presumably benign way to administer cannabis. But exactly how safe are vape pens as well as the liquid solutions within the cartridges that connect to these products? Who knows what’s actually being inhaled?

It’s generally assumed that vaping is a healthier means of administration than inhaling marijuana smoke, which contains noxious substances which may irritate the lungs. Since a vaporizer heats the cannabis flower or oil concentrate without burning it, the active ingredients are inhaled but no smoke is involved. No less than that’s how it’s expected to work.

But there may be a hidden downside to vape pens, which are manufactured (typically in China), marketed, and utilized without regulatory controls. Available online and then in medical marijuana dispensaries, vape pens include a battery-operated heating mechanism, which at high temperatures can modify solvents, flavoring agents, and other vape oil additives into carcinogens along with other dangerous toxins.

Of particular concern: Propylene glycol, a widely used chemical that is mixed with cannabis or hemp oil in many vape pen cartridges. A syrupy, thinning compound, propylene glycol is likewise the main ingredient in most of nicotine-infused e-cigarette solutions. At high temperatures, propylene glycol converts into tiny polymers that will ruin lung tissue.

Scientists know a whole lot about propylene glycol. It is located in an array of common household items-cosmetics, baby wipes, pharmaceuticals, pet food, antifreeze, etc. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Health Canada have deemed propylene glycol safe for human ingestion and topical application. But exposure by inhalation can be another matter. A lot of things are safe to eat but dangerous to breathe.

A 2010 study published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health concluded that airborne propylene glycol circulating indoors can induce or exacerbate asthma, eczema, and a lot of allergic symptoms. Children were said to be particularly sensitive to these airborne toxins. An earlier toxicology review warned that propylene glycol, ubiquitous in hairsprays, could be harmful because aerosol particles lodge deep inside the lungs and therefore are not respirable.

When propylene glycol is heated from a red-hot metal coil, the potential harm from inhalation exposure increases. High voltage heat can modify propylene glycol as well as other vaping additives into carbonyls. Carbonyls are a small group of cancer-causing chemicals that includes formaldehyde, which was connected to spontaneous abortions and low birth weight. A known thermal breakdown product of propylene glycol, formaldehyde is an International Agency for Research on Cancer group 1 carcinogen.

Due to low oral toxicity, propylene glycol is classified by the FDA as “generally acknowledged as safe” (GRAS) to be used as being a food additive, but this assessment was according to toxicity studies that failed to involve heating and breathing propylene glycol.

Prevalent in nicotine e-cig products and offer in a few vape oil cartridges, FDA-approved flavoring agents pose additional risks when inhaled rather than eaten. The flavoring compounds smooth and creamy (diacetyl and acetyl propionyl) are related to respiratory illness when inhaled in tobacco e-cigarette devices. Another hazardous-when-inhaled-but-safe-to-eat flavoring compound is cinnamon ceylon, which becomes cytotoxic when aerosolized.

Currently, there is absolutely no conclusive evidence that frequent users will experience cancer or any other illness when they inhale the valuables in vape oil cartridges. That’s because little is really known regarding the short or long term health results of inhaling propylene glycol and also other things that can be found in flavored vape pen cartridges. Several of these prefilled cartridges are poorly labeled with little or no meaningful facts about their contents.

The opportunity that vape mod kits might expose men and women to unknown side effects underscores the importance of adequate safety testing for these products, which to date has become lacking.

Scientists face several challenges because they attempt to gather relevant safety data. As yet, no-one has determined how much e-cig vapor the common user breathes in, so different studies assume different levels of vapor as his or her standard, which makes it challenging to compare results. Tracing what will happen on the vapor once it can be inhaled is equally problematic.

The biggest variable will be the device itself. The performance of each and every vape pen may vary greatly between different devices and quite often there is considerable variance when you compare two devices of the identical model.

Some vape pens require pressing a control button to charge the heating coil; other people are buttonless then one activates the battery just by sucking around the pen. The surface section of the vape pen’s heating element along with its electrical resistance play a huge role in converting ingestible solvents into inhalable toxins.

Another confounding factor is the scant facts about when and how long the user pushes the button or inhales on average, the length of time the coil warms up, or even the voltage used during the heating process. A five-volt setting yielded higher degrees of formaldehyde in a controlled propylene glycol study cited in the New England Journal of Medicine.

When it comes to vape pens, there’s an excellent desire for specific research on how people actually use these products in the real world in order to understand potential benefits or harms.

Such reports have been conducted while using Volcano vaporizer, the first generation vaping device that is different from a vape pen, a much more recent innovation, in several ways. Utilized in numerous studies being a medical delivery device, the Volcano is not really a portable contraption. The Volcano only heats raw cannabis flower, not oil extract solutions, and it doesn’t combust the bud.

Vape pen manufacturers don’t love to admit it, but when the heating element gets red hot inside a vape pen, the perfect solution inside the prefilled cartridges undergoes a process called “smoldering,” a technical term for which is tantamount to “burning.” While most of the vape oil liquid is vaporized and atomized, a part of the vape oil blend undergoes pyrolysis or combustion. For the reason that sense, a lot of the vcheap vape pen starter kit who have flooded the commercial market may not be true vaporizers.

Unlike vape pen devices, the Volcano vaporizer is tested for safety and pharmacokinetics (a measurement of what’s inside the blood and just how long it stays there). Collectively, your data vapeopen that vaporizing whole plant cannabis exposes the user to decrease numbers of carcinogens in comparison with smoke and decreases side effects (like reactions towards the harshness of smoke).

But nonportable vaporizers such as the Volcano might still pose health issues in the event the vaporized cannabis flower is below acceptable botanical safety standards. A recent article inside the Journal of Analytical Methods notes that high quantities of ammonia are designed from vaporizing cannabis grown incorrectly, perhaps as a result of lack of flushing during hydroponic cultivation. There’s a developing body of web data suggesting the chemicals used to push the plant towards unnaturally high THC concentrations remain in the finished product.